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The Formula for Happiness 幸福方程式

A pair of British researchers said Monday they had worked out a simple equation to quantify happiness that could put an exact figure on the emotional state.
两名英国科学家1月6日宣布他们发现了一个量化幸福的方程式, 可以用具体的数值来描述情感的状态。

After interviewing 1000 people, the researchers -- a psychologist and a self-styled "life coach" -- concluded that happiness equals P + 5E + 3H.
在对1000名男女作了跟踪研究后,科学家推导出了幸福方程式:幸福=P+5E+3H。

n the equation, P stands for Personal Characteristics (outlook on life, adaptability and resilience); E for Existence (health, friendships and financial stability) and H represents Higher Order (self-esteem, expectations and ambitions).

其中P代表个人性格(包括人生观、适应力和忍耐力);E代表生存需求(包括健康、友谊和财富),而H则表示高级心理需求(包括自尊、自我期许和抱负)。

The scientists asked interviewees -- a mix of men and women all over 18 years old -- to choose five scenarios that made them more happy or less happy from a list of 80 different situations. They also asked a series of questions about their own natures, outlooks and situations.

心理学家让实验人群--18岁以上的1000名男女--从80个不同的情境中挑出5个让他们觉得幸福或不幸福的要素,还分别就他们的性格、抱负等问题进行了询问。

Not surprisingly, the results showed that men and women found happiness in different ways.

不出意料,结果显示男性和女性的幸福观大相径庭。

Sunny weather, being with family and losing weight were more of an influence on women's happiness, while romance, sex, hobbies and victories by their favorite sports teams were more important to men.

对女性来说,晴朗的天气、甜蜜的家庭时光、减肥成功都是幸福的源泉。而男性则更看重罗曼蒂克的爱情、性、兴趣爱好和心仪球队的胜利。

The study was commissioned by a holiday company that wanted to understand what made people happier.

这一调查是由一家英国假日公司委托进行的。该公司想要了解如何让人们更有幸福感。

中国日报网站译


Mirror, mirror, on the wall, who's the ugliest of us all?
镜子啊镜子,墙上的镜子,谁是我们当中最丑的一个?

Wall-to-wall mirrors in gyms and dance studios might stop women getting the exercise they need because women who work out in front of a mirror get discouraged and feel tired, Canadian researchers said.
健身房和舞蹈房内四周的镜子可能会妨碍妇女们得到她们所需要的锻炼,因为当她们面对镜子锻炼身体时,会感到灰心丧气,精疲力竭。这是加拿大研究人员作出的结论。

The study, published in the journal Health Psychology, focused on young women who exercised less than 15 minutes a week. It found that, regardless of how they viewed their bodies, women who worked out in front of a mirror felt worse, or no better, and less at peace after 20 minutes of activity.
该论文发表在《健康心理学》杂志上,主要研究对象是每周锻炼时间不足15分钟的妇女。经研究发现,无论她们如何看待自己的体形,在镜子前进行锻炼的妇女会感觉更糟或者不好,锻炼20分钟过后,她们就感觉不那么心平气和。

"The mirrors make women more self-aware, they think of their shortcomings. Things like: 'I look fat, I should be more active'," said Kathleen Martin Ginis, lead author of the study, and a professor at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario.
该论文的主要作者凯瑟琳·马丁·吉尼说:“镜子使女人更有自知之明,让她们想起自己的短处,比如'我看上去很胖,我应该多运动'。当妇女变得更加自省的时候,她们可能会很遗憾地认为‘我没有那么好’。” 马丁·吉尼是安大略州汉弥顿市麦克马司特大学的教授。
摘自中国日报


New study shows happiness fights the common cold
新研究表明:快乐是战胜感冒的法宝

Don't worry, be happy and, according to new research, you will also be healthy.
根据新的研究结果显示,如果你心情愉快、无忧无虑,你就会身体健康。

It is estimated that over the course of one year, Americans suffer 1 billion colds. But new research shows that all it may take to avoid this common affliction is a positive and upbeat attitude.
据估计,美国一年中有十亿人患感冒。而新的研究表明只要有积极乐观的态度,就可以避免这一常见的疾病。

People who are energetic, happy and relaxed are less likely to catch a cold than those who are depressed, nervous or angry, finds a new study published in the journal Psychosomatic Medicine.
《心理医学》杂志发表的一项新的研究表明:精力充沛、快乐轻松的人和沮丧、紧张、易怒的人相比不容易得感冒。

Healthy volunteers first underwent an emotional assessment in which they were asked to rate their tendency to experience positive and negative emotions - how often they felt pleased, relaxed, happy, or anxious, depressed and hostile. The subjects were next given a squirt up the nose of a rhinovirus, the nasty little germ that causes colds.
身体健康的志愿者们首先接受了一次情绪测试,来测定他们的情绪是趋向于积极的还是消极的,也就是他们感到高兴、舒适、快乐或是焦虑、沮丧、敌对的频率。接着志愿者的鼻子上方被喷射一种能够引起感冒的可恶的微小细菌-----鼻病毒。

Researchers then watched the volunteers to see who came down with a cold and waited to see how the unlucky ill manifested their cold symptoms.
然后研究者们观察那些志愿者,看谁先感染上感冒,并等着看那些不幸患病的人表现何种感冒症状。

Researchers then watched the volunteers to see who came down with a cold and waited to see how the unlucky ill manifested their cold symptoms.
然后研究者们观察那些志愿者,看谁先感染上感冒,并等着看那些不幸患病的人表现何种感冒症状。

"We found that people who regularly experience positive emotions, when exposed to rhinovirus, are relatively protected from developing illness," said Dr. Sheldon Cohen, lead author of the study and a psychology professor at Carnegie Mellon University.
该研究的主要领导者、卡内基梅隆大学的心理学教授谢尔登·科恩博士说:"我们发现情绪一贯积极乐观的人遭受鼻病毒侵袭时,相对来说不太容易感染疾病。"

Although positive people showed a greater resistance to colds, negative people did not necessarily get sick more often.
"情绪越乐观,感冒的几率就越低,但是消极的情绪并不会对是否感冒产生影响。"科恩说。

Although positive people showed a greater resistance to colds, negative people did not necessarily get sick more often.
尽管积极的人对感冒表现出较强的抵抗力,消极的人也不一定更容易经常感冒。

"Increases in positive emotional styles were linked with decreases in the rate of clinical colds, but a negative emotional style had no effect on whether or not people got sick," Cohen said.
So how can your emotions influence your health? In simple terms, when the brain is "happy" it sends messages to our organs that help keep the body healthy and sound.
"It's like a drug that is released by your state of mind and simply changing the state of mind can produce effects on the rest of the body through the nervous system and hormones," said Dr. Neil Shulman, associate professor of medicine at Emory University School of Medicine and author of Doc Hollywood. "Your chance of developing the common cold, pneumonia, or even cancer may very well be decreased by keeping your brain in a healthy state."
In addition, happy and relaxed people are prone to better health practices than their negative and stressed counterparts. They are more likely to get plenty of sleep and to engage in regular exercise, and have been shown to have lower levels of certain stress hormones.
Shulman says the study shows there are some simple things you can do to improve your chances of staying healthy.
"The take-home message is that we have very healthy ways that we can improve our overall well-being that don't cost money and that don't require a wait in the doctor's office," he said.

"情绪越乐观,感冒的几率就越低,但是消极的情绪并不会对是否感冒产生影响。"科恩说。那么情绪到底是怎样影响你的健康的呢?简单的说,当大脑"轻松愉快"的时候,它会向各个器官发出有助于保持身体健康的信号。"这就像是你的情绪释放的一种麻醉剂,只要改变情绪就可以通过神经系统和激素对身体的其他部分产生影响," 埃莫里大学医学院的医学副教授、影片《好莱坞医生》的作者尼尔·舒尔曼博士说,"保持健康的情绪可以有效地降低感冒、肺炎甚至癌症发生的可能性。"另外,心情轻松愉快的人往往比消极紧张的人有更好的保健习惯。他们更容易有充足的睡眠,进行有规律的身体锻炼,而且他们体内某种紧张激素的含量较低。舒尔曼说研究显示你可以通过做一些简单的事情来保持身体健康。
他说:"我们的建议是通过健康的方法来改善整个健康状况,这不需要花钱也不需要在医生的办公室前等待。"
摘自中国日报网站


情感日记帮你疗伤 
Pouring your emotions out on paper could help wounds heal quicker, researchers say. 

It is thought that writing about troubling experiences helps people deal with them. 

This could then help the immune system work more effectively, researchers told the British Psychological Society conference in Stoke-on-Trent. 

They say their findings offer a cheap and easy to administer way of helping patients heal faster. 

In the study, which involved 36 people, half were asked to write about the most upsetting experience they had had, spelling out how they had felt. 

The rest of the study participants wrote about trivial things, such as how they spent their free time. 

Both groups spent 20 minutes a day for three days writing. 

Following the writing exercise, researchers created a small skin puncture on the participants' upper arms. 

The wounds were examined two weeks later. 

It was found that the group who had written about their emotional experiences had smaller wounds, meaning they had healed more quickly. 

Those whose wounds were healing more slowly were found to have higher levels of stress and psychological distress. 

Suzanne Scott, from the Unit of Psychology at King's College London, who led the research, said: "These findings have implications for the development of relatively brief and easy interventions that could have beneficial effects on wound healing. 

"The theory is that there's a long-term health benefit. 

She added: "It's easy to administer because the people don't need to have gone through some awful experience, they just need to write about their most upsetting experience." 

Psychologists say stress also influences how people recover from surgery. 

Professor John Weinman of King's College London told the BPS conference: "These research findings can help patients and will be important for developing interventions for patients undergoing different types of surgery." 

(Agencies)

研究者们说,将情感倾注于纸端,你的伤口会愈合得更快。

据说,把烦恼的经历写出来能够帮助人们解决问题。

研究者们在斯托康川特举行的英国心理学会大会上提出,这样做能够提高免疫系统的工作效率。

他们说他们的发现提供了一种既省钱又方便的方法来帮助病人提早康复。

有36人参加了该项研究,一半的人按要求记录下他们最不开心的经历,并详细叙述他们的感受。

其余的人则记录一些不重要的事,例如他们如何度过空闲时间之类的。

这两组人每天花20分钟时间来记录,这样连续做了三天。

写作练习之后,研究者们在参加者的上臂做一个小的皮肤穿刺。

两周以后,再一次检查伤口。

结果发现记录自己情绪变化的那组成员伤口更小,这就意味着他们康复得更快。

那些伤口愈合较慢的人结果有很大的心理压力,精神高度紧张。

伦敦国王大学心理学院的苏珊·斯科特是这次研究的带头人。她说:“这些发现意味着一些比较简单易行的干预就会有助于伤口愈合。”

"原理就是这样做身体会长期受益。

她还补充说:“这种方法很容易掌握,因为人们不一定非要经历可怕的事,他们只需要写下令自己最苦恼的经历就可以了。”

心理学家们说精神紧张也会影响手术后的康复。

伦敦国王大学的约翰·温曼教授在此次大会上说:“这些研究结果会对病人有所帮助,并且对于探索干预治疗各种手术病人的办法也是很重要的。”
ZT


Scientists Say They ID Depression Gene 
锁定躁郁症真凶 原是基因在作祟 
Scientists say they've identified a flawed gene that appears to promote manic-depression, or bipolar disorder, a finding that could eventually help guide scientists to new treatments. 
A particular variant of the gene was associated with only about 3 percent of cases in a study, but researchers said other variants might be involved with more. 

Follow-up research might help reveal the mysterious underlying biology that makes some people susceptible to the disorder, and so help scientists devise new treatments, said the study's senior author, Dr. John Kelsoe of the University of California, San Diego. 

The work is reported in Monday's issue of the journal Molecular Psychiatry. 

Previous studies have suggested that other genes are involved in manic-depression. But one expert, Dr. Melvin McInnis of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, said in an interview that he thinks Kelsoe's new work and another recent study provide the strongest evidence for involvement of particular genes in the disease. 

Manic-depression, which affects about 2.3 million American adults, involves episodes of depression and mania, states of abnormally high mood or irritability. 

While effective treatment is available, scientists would like to find better medications. 

Genetics clearly play a role. Kelsoe's work focused on a gene called GRK3, which influences the brain's sensitivity to chemical messages brain cells send each other. Defects in the gene might promote manic-depression by making people oversensitive to these messages, which are carried by dopamine and other substances, he said. 

Kelsoe and colleagues found statistical evidence tying a particular variant of the GRK3 gene to the disease. They tracked the inheritance of this variant from parent to child in families with a history of bipolar disorder. Overall, the variant was passed along more often than one would expect by chance to a child who later developed the disease. 

That suggests the variant promotes susceptibility to bipolar disorder. 

The association between the variant gene and the disorder appeared in one group of 153 families and a second group of 275 families. That association is only statistical, and Kelsoe said researchers now are looking for biological evidence that this variant of the gene acts abnormally. 

科学家称他们已经发现了一种引发躁郁症,或称双极性疾患的破坏性基因。这项发现可以最终在躁郁症的治疗方面为科学家们提供指导性帮助。 
研究者们在研究中发现,仅有3%的病例证实是和此种基因的一种特殊变体有关,但是其他的变体的诱病率可能会更高。

这项研究报告的作者,圣地亚哥的加利福尼亚大学的约翰·凯尔索博士说,今后的深入研究或许可以揭示这种神秘的隐形生物是如何让某些人患上躁郁症的,这样就可以帮助科学家们制定出新的治疗方案。

这项研究刊登在了6月16日的期刊《分子精神病学》上。

从前的研究发现有其他种类的基因同躁郁症的发病有关。但是位于巴尔的摩的约翰斯·霍普金斯大学的梅尔文·麦金尼斯博士,一位研究躁郁症的专家在一次采访中说,他认为凯尔索博士的新研究和近期的其他有关研究都有力地证明这种病同某种特殊的基因有关。

目前美国有230万成年人饱受躁郁症之苦。这种病的症候主要是间歇性的抑郁和狂躁,出现反常的情绪高涨或者兴奋。

尽管我们现在已经有了有效的治疗方法,但是科学家们还在寻求更好的治疗途径。

研究表明,遗传学显然同这种病有关。凯尔索博士的研究集中在一种成为GRK3的基因上。这种基因影响大脑对化学成分和大脑细胞之间相互传递的敏感度。凯尔索博士说,这种基因的特性可以最终造成人们对这些成分(通常在多巴胺和其他物质中)的过分敏感,而诱发躁郁症。 凯尔索博士和同事们已经发现了同GRK3这种特殊基因变体相关的数据证据。他们跟踪研究了有躁郁症病史的家庭中带有这种变体的父母和孩子之间的遗传情况。总的来说,这种变体通常是会由父母遗传给孩子的,而孩子日后自然也会患上躁郁症。

这就说明正是这种变体诱发了躁郁症。

这种基因变体和躁郁症之间的研究结果是在分别对153个家庭和275个家庭进行调查之后得出的。但是目前这个结果还只停留在数据阶段,因此凯尔索博士说研究者们正在寻找证明这种基因变体反常作用的生物学方面的证据。ZT


Fat equals lazy? 
为胖人伸冤 肥胖≠懒惰 
Doctors are guilty of wrongly believing that obese people are simply lazy, research suggests. 

Researchers at Yale University said the findings highlight the difficulty in tackling the stigma around obesity. 

Many obese people complain that others believe they are overweight simply because they eat too much or fail to exercise. 

This is despite the fact that obesity can be caused by a variety of other factors, such as genes and environment. 

Dr Marlene Schwartz and colleagues carried out psychological tests on 389 professionals who treat and study obese people. 

They found that younger professionals, in particular, were most likely to have unfavourable stereotypes of obese people. 

Workers who did not deal directly with obese patients were also inclined to see them in an unfavourable light. 

"On both implicit and explicit measures, health professionals associated the stereotypes lazy, stupid and worthless with obese people," said Dr Schwartz. 

"The stigma of obesity is so strong that even those most knowledgeable about the condition infer that obese people have blameworthy behavioural characteristics that contribute to their problem, i.e. being lazy," she said. 

"Furthermore, these biases extend to core characteristics of intelligence and personal worth." 

Dr Ian Campbell of the UK's National Obesity Forum said he was not surprised by the findings and said they would probably be replicated if the test was carried out on British doctors. 

"It is disappointing but it is not surprising to see that health professionals have the same ingrained prejudice against obese people as the general public," he said. 

"It is becoming increasingly clear that as much as 80% of people who are obese are predisposed genetically. 

"Although it is very rare to find a case where obesity is purely genetic, there are many cases where it is not in the patient's control." 

He said it was unhelpful for doctors to be biased against obese patients. 

"It is important for doctors and other health professionals to show understanding and enthusiasm for change. 

"If a doctor is biased against the patient's efforts, then it is unlikely to have a good outcome." 
研究表明:医生们错误的认为肥胖完全是因为懒惰,他们这样说是有罪的。

耶鲁大学的研究者们说该结果突出了一个问题——要解除肥胖带来的恶名不那么容易。

许多肥胖的人抱怨说别人都以为他们过度肥胖就是因为他们贪吃,或者是缺乏运动。

然而事实并非如此。造成肥胖的因素多种多样,例如基因和环境。

马琳·施瓦茨医生和他的同事对389名治疗和研究肥胖病人的医护人员进行了心理测试。

他们发现特别是一些较年轻的医护人员更容易对肥胖病人有偏见。

那些不直接和肥胖病人打交道的工作人员也倾向于对他们另眼相看。

“不管是用含蓄的还是直接的方式,医护人员总是将懒惰、愚蠢、无用和肥胖的人联系起来,”施瓦茨医生说。

她说:“肥胖的名声太坏,甚至那些健康知识非常渊博的人也推断肥胖患者是因为养成了不当的行为习惯,例如懒惰,才导致肥胖。”

“而且,这些偏见扩大到智力和个人价值等核心特征。”

英国国家肥胖论坛的伊恩·坎贝尔医生说他对这样的发现并不感到惊讶,如果在英国医生中进行这样的测试,结果可能会雷同。

“医护人员和大众一样对肥胖病人有根深蒂固的偏见,这一发现让我们感到失望但并不出乎意料,”他说。

“现在越来越明显,将近80%的肥胖病人是受基因的影响。”

“尽管很少发现肥胖完全是因为基因引起的,但是在许多病例中病人是无法控制发胖的。”

他说医生对肥胖病人有偏见是没有好处的。

“医生和其它医护人员应该理解和积极支持病人改变现状,这一点很重要。”

“如果医生对病人的努力有偏见,那么就不太可能有好结果。”
ZT


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To forgive may be divine, but no one ever said it was easy. When someone has deeply hurt you, it can be extremely difficult to let go of your grudge. But forgiveness is possible -- and it can be surprisingly beneficial to your physical and mental health.
"People who forgive show less depression, anger and stress and more hopefulness," says Frederic, Ph.D., author of Forgive for Good. "So it can help save on the wear and tear on our organs, reduce the wearing out of the immune system and allow people to feel more vital."
So how do you start the healing? Try following these steps:
Calm yourself. To defuse your anger, try a simple stress-management technique. "Take a couple of breaths and think of something that gives you pleasure: a beautiful scene in nature, someone you love," Frederic says.
Don't wait for an apology. "Many times the person who hurt you has no intention of apologizing," Frederic says. "They may have wanted to hurt you or they just don't see things the same way. So if you wait for people to apologize, you could be waiting an awfully long time." Keep in mind that forgiveness does not necessarily mean reconciliation with the person who upset you or condoning of his or her action.
Take the control away from your offender. Mentally replaying your hurt gives power to the person who caused you pain. "Instead of focusing on your wounded feelings, learn to look for the love, beauty and kindness around you," Frederic says.
Try to see things from the other person's perspective. If you empathize with that person, you may realize that he or she was acting out of ignorance, fear -- even love. To gain perspective, you may want to write a letter to yourself from your offender's point of view.
Recognize the benefits of forgiveness. Research has shown that people who forgive report more energy, better appetite and better sleep patterns.
Don't forget to forgive yourself. "For some people, forgiving themselves is the biggest challenge," Frederic says. "But it can rob you of your self-confidence if you don't do it."
宽恕是神圣的,但是没有人说很容易做到宽恕别人。当你被深深伤害的时候,想要不怀恨在心是很难做到的。但是宽恕是可能的——而且这会给你的身心健康带来出乎意料的益处。《宽恕的好处》一书的作者弗雷德里克博士说。 “懂得宽恕的人不会感到那么沮丧、愤怒和紧张,他们总是充满希望。所以宽恕有助于减少人体各种器官的损耗,降低免疫系统的疲劳程度并使人精力更加充沛。”那么,如何恢复自己的情绪呢?试试下面的一些步骤吧:让自己冷静下来。尝试一种简单的减压技巧来缓解你愤怒的情绪。弗雷德里克建议:“做几次深呼吸,然后想想那些令你快乐的事情,比如自然界的美丽景色,或者你爱的人。”不要等别人来道歉。弗雷德里克说:“许多时候,伤害你的人没有想过要道歉。他们可能是故意的,也可能只是和你看待事物的方式不一样。所以如果你等着别人来道歉,你可能会等相当长的时间。”你要牢记,宽恕并不一定意味着顺从那些让你心烦意乱的人,也不意味着饶恕他或她的行为。不要让冒犯你的人控制你的情绪。内心里总是想着自己的伤痛,只会给伤害你的人打气。弗雷德里克说:“与其老是关注自己受到的伤害,还不如学着去寻找你身边的真善美。”试着从别人的角度来看问题。如果你站在别人的立场上,你也许会意识到他或她是因为无知、害怕、甚至是爱才那样做的。为了能够站在别人的角度来看问题,你可以从冒犯你的人的立场给你自己写一封信。认识到宽恕的益处。研究表明懂得宽恕的人精力更旺盛、食欲更好、睡觉更香。
不要忘了宽恕自己。弗雷德里克说:“对于有些人来说,宽恕自己才是最大的挑战。但是如果你不宽恕自己,你会失去自信。”(中国日报网站译)


我也来贴一篇自己翻译的东西,短的东西没什么深度,见笑。

New faces light up shy brains 

US scientists have spotted something different in the brains of shy and outgoing people when they meet a new face.
What's more, it seems that the difference has its roots in childhood. Individuals' approaches to unfamiliarity as kids appear to be echoed by their neural responses to novelty later in life.
The distinction may rest in an almond-shaped region of the brain called the amygdala, which is involved in emotion and survival. When Carl Schwartz of Massachusetts General Hospital in Charlestown showed pictures of strangers to young adults, he saw more activity in the amygdala of thirteen 21-year-olds with a history of shyness than he did in adults who've been oozing confidence since kindergarten. "We can see that signature in the brain's circuitry," he says.
"I guess the biggest surprise for us is that individual differences in response to novel objects is maintained 20 years later," remarks Schwartz. Past shyness studies have focused on infants, recording details such as their heart rates. This experiment is the first to follow up such children as adults with brain imaging.
Environmental factors, such as overprotective parents or accidents, shape the temperament that people are born with. The hope is that research may help us to understand the complex crosstalk between genes and surroundings at crucial stages of infant development, and shed light on any connection between childhood anxiety and later psychiatric disorders.
Nonetheless, a correlation between brain activity in adults and childhood temperament does not prove that being reserved as a child leads to shyness later in life. "Our study provides a very strong inference, but it does not prove a link," cautions Schwartz.
So does this mean that cowering in the crib destines a person for a quiet life? Definitely not, says psychologist Simon Killcross of Cardiff University, UK, who studies mechanisms of fear and anxiety. "That a person has difficulty with novelty doesn't mean they are unable to change - the adult brain is more plastic than the man in the street would imagine."
References
1. Schwartz, C. E., Wright, C. I., Shin, L. M., Kagan, J. & Rauch, S. L. Inhibited and Uninhibited Infants "Grown Up": Adult Amygdalar Response to Novelty. Science, 300, 1952 - 1953, (2003).
Nature News Service / Macmillan Magazines Ltd 2003 

陌生的面孔点亮害羞的大脑

美国科学家发现,害羞的和外向的人群面对陌生面孔时,脑部活动具有某种差异。
而且,这种差异在年幼时就存在。个体在成年后对新颖事物的脑部神经活动,是他们年幼时对待不熟悉事物时脑部神经活动的一种再现。
这种差别可能来源于脑部一个参与情绪和基本生命活动的杏仁状结构——杏仁体。查尔斯城马萨诸塞州总医院的卡尔. 施瓦茨医生,向一组年轻人展示了一系列陌生人的脸部照片。他发现,与从幼年时就很自信的被试相比,13个曾经被确定具有害羞个性的21岁被试的杏仁体活动更为强烈。“我们可以发现那些脑部回路的特征,”他说。
“我认为最让我们吃惊的是个体对新鲜事物反应的差异可以保持20年之久,” 施瓦茨医生表示。以前对害羞的研究集中在婴幼儿身上,记录诸如心率等细节信息。通过脑成像技术跟踪研究儿童直至成人的实验,这还是第一次。
如过分溺爱的父母或意外事故等环境因素,可以改变人天生的气质。对于理解儿童生长发育关键阶段的基因和环境之间的复杂关系、找到儿童焦虑及其以后的精神疾病的关系,这项研究带来了希望。
然而,成人脑部活动和儿童气质的相关性并不能证明童年时害羞的个性会在其以后的生活中一直保持。“我们的研究提出了这样一个推论,并不能证明两者的必然联系,” 施瓦茨医生提醒到。
这是否表示在婴儿床上瑟缩成一团的个性害羞的婴儿注定要过平淡的生活?当然不是,英国加的夫大学一位研究害怕和焦虑机制的心理学家西蒙.科尔克劳斯。“一个人面对新事物感到不适并不表示他们就会一直如此——成人脑的可塑性远远超过任何一个人的想象”。


Bully on the Brain

Feb. 14, 2000 (Boston) -- For the first time, a brain defect that could be at least partly responsible for extremely violent criminal actions and antisocial behaviors of some men has been identified, report researchers from the University of Southern California (USC). 

Men with antisocial personality disorder (APD) -- a form of mental illness often seen in serial killers and other violent, aggressive, wildly impulsive, or dangerous people -- had an 11% reduction in a certain type of tissue (gray matter) in the part of the brain known as the prefrontal cortex when compared with either normal men or men with a history of drug or alcohol abuse but no APD.

Researchers have pinpointed the prefrontal cortex as the part of the brain where emotion, arousal, attention, moral conscience, and self-control primarily reside.

The link between extremely violent and antisocial behavior and damage to prefrontal cortex from disease or trauma has been long established. One of the most famous cases was that of a Vermont railroad worker named Phineas Gage, who in 1848 survived and, remarkably, recovered rapidly from a horrific accident in which a heavy iron tamping rod more than three feet in length was driven by an explosion completely through his skull. Following the accident, however, he underwent a dramatic personality change, and began to display many of the traits of APD, including antisocial behavior, use of sexually explicit language, apparent lack of moral conscience, impulsiveness, irritability, aggressiveness, and an inability to focus on work or plan for the future.

Although children are not typically diagnosed with personality disorders until they reach adulthood, according to the American Psychiatric Association, children that exhibit signs similar to APD typically violate rules and show signs of extreme aggression, such as the torture of animals or other people, frequent bullying or threatening, use of weapons that could cause serious injury, lying, sexual aggression, vandalism, and theft. Adults with APD frequently commit criminal acts, get into fights, cheat, show a general disregard for the safety of themselves or others, and show a lack of remorse for their own behavior.

But the findings from the USC study raise legal and ethical questions about whether some violent offenders are completely responsible for their actions, and whether they can or should be treated with specific interventions that could curb impulsive behaviors and dampen their aggressive tendencies so that they no longer present a threat to society at large.

"I don't think anyone would argue that you can treat extreme antisocial behavior by locking people away, but then how would we treat them, and is it possible to prevent such behaviors from occurring in the first place?" asks M. Marsel Mesulam, MD, in an interview with WebMD seeking objective analysis. Mesulam is professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Northwestern University Medical School in Chicago.

"The exciting part would be if this could be a marker to identify children who are at increased risk for this troublesome adult outcome, and if it would have sufficient accuracy to pick up children who are at risk for this condition, because that's a prerequisite for any targeted intervention program," agrees David R. Offord, MD, director of the Centre for Studies of Children at Risk at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario.

If the causes of the underlying problem can be identified, it could allow doctors to design therapies such as drugs or surgery to treat the specific brain defect, combined with other strategies such as psychiatric treatment and behavioral therapy. Such therapies would be likely to be more effective in children, whose brains are more adaptable to change than those of adults, says researcher Adrian Raine, DPhil, professor of psychology at the USC, in an interview with WebMD.

"We have to try to discover what the causes of the prefrontal damage are, and that's what we can't answer at the moment," Raine says. "The deficit could occur from environmental factors, such as birth complications, which could traumatize the brain. We did research a few years ago showing that birth complications predispose to violent offending in adulthood. Perhaps if we gave under-served mothers better prenatal and postnatal health care, we might be in a better position to do something about reducing one of the sources of prefrontal damage."

"Another source of the damage could be very early infant abuse. If you repeatedly shake an infant, you'll lacerate the white nerve fibers connecting the frontal cortex, effectively shutting it off from the rest of the brain and perhaps leading to some neuronal [nerve cell] degeneration. So the question may be, what do we do to prevent early infant abuse?" he says.

Raine tells WebMD that although there is little hope now of curing adults with APD, "we know that in the next 10 years we'll have the first microchip implant to replace the hippocampus [the area of the brain thought to be involved in emotion and memory], and scientists are working on using microchip implants to replace other damaged brain structures. It's not inconceivable, therefore, that within the next 15 to 20 years we might be able to do something about the tissue loss that occurs in these individuals."

Vital Information: 

Antisocial personality disorder (APD) is a form of mental illness often seen in serial killers and other violent, aggressive, wildly impulsive, or dangerous people. 
Researchers have found that men with APD have an 11% reduction in a type of tissue in the prefrontal cortex -- the area of the brain associated with emotion, arousal, attention, moral conscience, and self-control. 
Some suggestions as to what actually causes the damage to this area of the brain include environmental factors, such as complications during birth, or early infant abuse.

反社会人格紊乱(APD)来源于大脑

2000年2月14日(波士顿)-南加州大学(USC)的研究人员说他们已经首次辨认出一个至少部分与某些人的极度暴力犯罪行为和反社会行为有关的大脑缺陷。 

反社会人格紊乱(APD)是一种经常发生在连环杀手和有暴力和侵略性倾向,冲动危险人物身上的一种心理疾病。患有APD的人大脑前额皮层的某个组织(灰质)的体积与正常人或者有吸毒酗酒史但没有APD 的人比起来减少了11%。

研究人员已经确认前额皮层是与情感,激发,注意力,良知道德和自制有关的脑区。

极度暴力倾向和反社会行为和由于疾病或外伤造成的大脑前额皮层损害之间的关系很早以前就已经为人们所认识。最著名的病例是美国佛蒙特州一个名叫Phineas Gage的铁路工人。1848年他从一次可怕的事故中幸免遇难并且很快地康复了。在这次事故中,一根三英尺多长的沉重的小铁棒被爆炸气流炸飞起来穿透了他的头骨。事故过后,他的人格发生了明显的变化,表现出很多APD的特征,包括反社会行为,使用下流的语言,明显缺乏道德感,冲动,易怒,有侵略倾向,工作不能集中注意力以及对未来缺乏计划等。

据美国精神病协会报道,虽然儿童要等到成年才能表现出典型的人格紊乱症状,一些表现出与APD相似的特征的儿童与其他儿童比起来尤其可能违反纪律和具有侵略倾向,比如折磨小动物或周围的人,经常威胁恐吓别人,使用会引起严重伤害的武器,撒谎,损坏公物,偷窃等。患有APD的成年人经常做出触犯法律的举动,斗殴,欺骗,漠视本人和他人的安全,对自己的行为不悔改等。

但是USC的研究结果也从法律和道德角度对这一现象提出了疑问,一些暴力倾向者是否可以对自己的行为负完全责任,人们是否应该采用特殊方式对待他们,阻止他们的冲动行为,减轻他们的侵略性倾向,使他们即使在无人监护时也不会对社会构成威胁。

芝加哥西北大学精神病学和行为科学教授M. Marsel Mesulam在接受WebMD网采访时就这一问题寻求客观分析的时候说,“我想任何人都不会把将这些人锁起来作为阻止极度反社会行为的方法,那该怎么对待这些人呢,有没有可能把这些行为控制在刚出现的时候呢”?

汉密尔顿McMaster 大学特殊儿童研究中心主任David R. Offord对这一看法表示同意,“这一发现令人激动的地方在于它是一个参量,这个参量可以帮助我们辨认出那些正逐步走向危险,在成人后会产生这一令人棘手地结果的儿童,可以帮助我们准确地发现处于潜伏期儿童”。

如果发现了产生这一问题的原因,医生就可以找到治疗方法来医治这种大脑损伤,比如药物或手术治疗,或结合其他的方法如精神治疗和行为疗法。

Raine说,“我们试图发现前额额叶损伤的原因所在,但目前我们还找不到答案。损伤可以由环境因素引发,如出生时的并发症会损伤大脑。几年前我们进行的相关研究显示出生时的并发症会导致成年后的暴力倾向。如果我们给妇女更好的产前和产后照顾,我们就有可能减少造成对额叶造成损伤的原因之一”。

他还说,“另外一个原因可能是婴儿早期受到虐待。如果婴儿被反复摇晃,连接前额皮层的白神经纤维就会断裂,从而前额皮层与大脑其余部分的联系也断开,导致一些神经细胞的衰退。所以问题就是我们应该怎样防止婴儿在早期受到虐待”。

Raine告诉WebMD网说,虽然现在医治患有APD的成年人几乎没有什么希望,但“我们已经知道十年内我们会把第一块微芯片植入人脑代替大脑中与情感和记忆有关的海马区,并且科学家正在试验植入微芯片代替其他受损害的大脑组织。所以在十五到二十年之内我们应该可以为这些大脑组织受到损伤的人做些事情”。 

重要信息: 

*反社会人格紊乱(APD)是一种经常发生在连环杀手和有暴力侵略性倾向和冲动危险的人物身上的一种心理疾病。 

*研究人员发现患有APD的人大脑前额皮层的某种组织减少了11%-这一脑区与情感,激发,注意力,良知道德和自制有关。 

*这一脑区受到损伤的原因究竟是什么,答案包括环境因素如出生时的并发症,和婴儿在早期受到虐待。

译自WebMD医药新闻


How Emotions Strengthen Memory
James L. McGaugh, Ph.D.,California

From both human and animal studies, we know that a certain class of anxiety-reducing drugs called benzodiazepines (Valium and Halcion, for example) impair memory consolidation. Other classes of drugs have the opposite effect and can enhance memory, but only if they are administered shortly after learning, when memory consolidation is occurring. If the injections occur more than six hours after training, memory is not enhanced.

Both kinds of drugs work on the same receptors in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala, receptors for the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA, which blocks the firing of the receiving neuron or moderates the strength of its firing. The amnesia-inducing drugs are GABA agonists: they act like GABA itself to activate the GABA receptors. The memory enhancing drugs are GABA antagonists: they block activation of the GABA receptors.

Memory also is enhanced by hormones that are released when we experience stress. This explains why emotional arousal has such a powerful influence on how well we remember things. When the brain senses danger, the instant fight-or-flight response involves the hypothalamus sending signals along the sympathetic nervous system to the adrenal glands, specifically to the adrenal medulla, which secrete the hormones epinephrine (also called adrenaline) and norepinephrine into the blood stream. Adrenaline raises the heart rate; norepinephrine raises blood pressure.

If the threat continues for more than a few seconds, the HPA (hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal) axis is activated. The hypothalamus releases a hormone called CRH (corticotropin releasing hormone), which stimulates the pituitary gland to secrete ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone), which in turn stimulates the outer part of the adrenal glands, the adrenal cortex, to produce cortisol. Cortisol, among other things, increases the supply of blood glucose to make more energy available, enabling the fight and/or the flight. Both epinephrine and cortisol play a very powerful role in regulating the strength of memory by regulating the release of norepinephrine in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala.

Even though the amygdala is crucial to the consolidation of emotional memories, it is not the site of long-term storage of the memories. Animal studies show that when animals are trained with mild foot shocks (a sufficiently negative experience to induce the stress response) and then have their amygdalas inactivated by injections of lidocaine, they can still perform the training task; their memory is not affected.

We know from human experiments that the strength of a memory is regulated by the significance of the experience. The regulation involves the release of stress hormones. In one experiment, two groups of subjects were read a story and shown a series of slides. They all saw the same slides, but they heard two different stories. One story was flat and neutral; the other story matched it except for an emotionally arousing description in the middle.

Two weeks later, the subjects were asked to state what they remembered of the slides. The group that heard the neutral story remembered the slides from all parts of the story equally well (or poorly); there was no difference in recall of the slides from the beginning, middle, or end of the story. The other group, however, had significantly enhanced recall of the slides in the middle, the ones they were looking at when they heard the emotionally arousing description.

In a subsequent experiment, half the subjects were given a beta blocker (to block epinephrine effects) before the experiment started. For those who heard the neutral story, the beta blocker made no difference in their recall of the slides. But in those who heard the emotional story, the beta blocker completely blocked the arousing effect of emotion on memory, preventing the memory from becoming strong.

These results have clear implications for people who are plagued by vivid memories of a trauma and are suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder. It may be possible to block the development of post-traumatic stress disorder by artificially--that is, pharmaceutically--blocking the effects of stress hormones in the brain. If we can reduce the emotional charge of the memory of an assault or an accident, we can reduce the long-term anxiety.

When the connection between emotion and memory works well, the results are very satisfying: we remember the important and good things that we want and need to remember. When the system is overworked, we may remember too much, or too intensely, and the result may be debilitating.

情绪如何增强记忆
James L. McGaugh, Ph.D.,California大学心理学研究教授、学习与记忆神经生物学中心创建人和中心主任

从对人和对动物的研究中我们知道,一类称为苯二氮杂平类(benzodiazepine)的减轻忧虑的药物(例如安定和Halcion)会损伤记忆的巩固。其它类型的药物则具有相反的作用,能够增强记忆,但在学习后的记忆增强发生时马上用药才有效。如果在训练后超过六个小时用药,那么记忆不会被增强。

这两类药物都对杏仁核侧底核中的相同受体起作用,这些抑制性神经递质GABA(伽玛氨基丁酸)的受体阻止接受神经元的兴奋或节制其兴奋强度。导致健忘症的药物为GABA促效剂(agonists):它们的作用像GABA自身一样激活GABA受体。增强记忆的药物则为GABA拮抗剂(antagonists):它们阻止GABA受体的激活。

当我们感到有压力时所释放的荷尔蒙也会增强记忆。这就解释了为什么情绪唤醒对我们回忆事情具有强有力的影响。当大脑意识到危险时, “战斗还是逃避”的瞬间反应涉及到视丘下部,沿交感神经系统将信号送至肾上腺,尤其是肾上腺髓质,分泌出荷尔蒙肾上腺素(或称肾上腺素)和降肾上腺素进入血流。肾上腺素使心率加快,降肾上腺素使血压上升。

如果这个威胁超过几秒钟,那么HPA(视丘下部-脑垂体-肾上腺)枢纽将激活。视丘下部释放出一种称为CRH(促肾上腺皮质释放荷尔蒙)的荷尔蒙,刺激脑垂体分泌出ACTH(促肾上腺皮质荷尔蒙),ACTH又刺激肾上腺外部即肾上腺皮质,产生出皮质醇(cortisol)。而皮质醇提升血糖以为战斗和/或逃跑提供更多的能量。在通过调节杏仁核侧底核中的降肾上腺素的释放来调节记忆力的过程中,肾上腺素和皮质醇都扮演着重要的角色。

即使杏仁核对于情绪性记忆的巩固极为重要,它并不是存贮长期记忆的部位。动物研究表明,在对一些动物用软性足部刺激(一种足以引起应激反应的负面体验)进行训练,然后通过注射利多卡因使其杏仁核不活动,这些动物仍可以完成训练任务,它们的记忆未受影响。

我们从对人的实验了解到,记忆强度由体验的意义所调节。这种调节涉及了应激荷尔蒙的释放。在一个实验中,对两组受检者读一段故事和放映一组幻灯片。他们都看同一组幻灯片,但听的是两个不同的故事。一个故事平淡而中和,另一个故事相类似,只是在中间部分有一段激起情感的描述。

两周后,请这些受检者叙述他们对那组幻灯片的回忆。听中性故事的那组能够同样或好或坏地回忆起所有故事情节,对幻灯片的回忆从头到尾没有区别。但是另一组则对中间部分有更强的记忆,他们在看这部分的时候曾听过激起情感的描述。

在其后的一个实验中,实验开始前给一半的受检者贝塔阻断剂(以阻断肾上腺素作用)。对于那些听了中性故事的人,贝塔阻断剂没有造成他们对幻灯片回忆的差别。但对于那些听了感人故事的人,贝塔阻断剂则完全阻断了他们记忆中激情印象,从而防止对此的记忆变强。

对于被受那些对创伤的清晰记忆所折磨和遭受伤后应激紊乱的人,这些结果具有清楚的提示。可以采用人工的即药物的方式阻断伤后应激紊乱的发展,阻断大脑中应激荷尔蒙的作用。如果我们能够减小对一次伤害或事故记忆的情绪负担,那么就能够减小长期的焦虑。

当情绪与记忆之间的连接正常,结果十分令人满意:我们记住我们想要记住的重要的和好的事情。如果该系统工作过度,我们会记忆太多或太强烈,从而结果就会减弱。

文章来源: 美国国会图书馆和国家精神健康研究院组织的研讨会 1998-5-6


读了这些文章挺有收获的


How to go on your life especially after trauma
如何继续你的生活尤其是面对创伤时
Somebody wanted to learn medicine but he couldn’t make up his mind . He went to ask his friend: “Is it suitable for me to study it? I’ll be 44 after 4 years of college.” 
有一个人想学医,可是又犹豫不决,就去问他的一个朋友: “再过四年,我就44岁了,能行吗?”
His friend said to him: “why not ? Four years later you’ll be 44 whether you go to college or not.” He thought it over and got the idea. The next day he went to enroll at the college.
朋友对他说: “怎么不行呢?你不学医,再过四年也44岁呀!”他想了想,瞬间领悟了,第二天就去学校报了名
One of my friends did business in collaboration with somebody else a few years ago . Their freighter was upturned by storm at sea and their hope , together with their merchandise vanished all of a sudden. He was so upset by the blow that he became low-spirited and couldn’t even concentrate his attention. His partner who suffered the same catastrophe never lost heart. His days went on as colorfully as before. My friend asked him how he could manage it. He sayed: “you curse ,you grieve, life goes on as usual; you are happy and enjoy yourself, the world runs as usual. Which course do you follow?” 
我的一个朋友,几年前跟人合伙做了生意,运货的船突遇风浪,翻了,他们所有的财产和梦想也随之坠入了海底.他经不起这个打击,从此变得萎靡不振,神思恍惚。当他看到另一个人跟他一起遭遇变故的人居然活得有滋有味时,就去问他。那人对他说: “你咒骂,你伤心,日子一天天过去;你快乐,你欢乐,日子一天天地过去,你选择哪一种呢?”

That’s how a person leads his life .When you are optimistic and in a good mood, your future seems sunny and bright. On the contrary ,when you are worried and have your mind caged in sadness, your future will turn dark. The latter situation, if you allow it to last, will cost you a great deal. You will lose confidence and courage to fight for the better. You will let go the joyfully things that come your way. They are like the air around us ,really the most important ,the most reliable part of links o f our life. If they get loose and drop one after another, how can you keep happiness? 
人就是这样,当你以一种豁达、乐观向上的心态去构筑未来时,眼前就会呈现一片光明;反之,当你将思维囿于忧伤的樊笼里,未来就就变得暗淡无光了。长此下去,你不仅会将最起码的信念和拼搏的勇气泯灭,还会将身边那些最近最真的欢乐失去。对每一个人来说,那些如空气一样充塞在身边的欢乐才是最重要的,它组成我们生命之链上最真实可靠的一环,你一节一节地让它松落了,欢笑怎么能向下延续呢?
There’s a poem which says: “Whether you are aware or not, whether you like or dislike. Show attention or ignore, flowers bloom luxuriously all the same.” Yes, that’s it . Just as flowers keep blooming, fine days are passing away one after another. How to spend your days oyfully or sorrowfully will entirely depend on yourself. 
有一首诗写道:“你知道,你爱惜,花儿努力地开放;你不识,你厌恶,花儿努力地开。”是的,花儿总是在努力地开,美好的日子也一天天地流逝,你该欣喜地度过每一天还是痛苦地挨过每一日,可全在于你自己了。

虽然与专业关系不大,但奖励一分,以鼓励!


真可惜我E文太低了。。。
看来要好好学习了!


我估计翻译的各位大多数不是精神科专业人士,虽然大家花了许多的时间和精力,但还是有不少简单的错误,例如bipolar disorder意思是双相情感障碍,也就是躁郁症;antisocial personality disorder(APD)的意思是反社会人格障碍, benzodiazepine的意思是苯二氮卓,希望大家加强专业训练,好好加油!


谢谢大家的帖子
真好


谢谢大家的帖子
真好


这些文章都是peer-review的吗?


最近看到一篇很有意思的心理学文章,谈的是关于爱的,很有意思,摘了部分给大家欣赏,并做了简要的翻译。
adapted from Rathus,S.A.&J.S.Nevud. Psychology and the Chanllenges of Life. 4th ed.
Models of love
心理学家发现爱是一个复杂的概念,它是关于情感的、认知的和动机等多领域的体验。心理学家也谈及了爱有多种性质和种类。我们接下来看看西方文化中爱的概念
The greek heritage of four types of love
The concept of love can be traced back at least to the classical Greeks,who had four concepts related to the modern concept of love: Storge, Agape, Philia and Eros. Storge(pronounced STORE-gay) is translated as attachment and nonsexually oriented affection, the emotion that binds friends and parents and children together. Agape is similar to generosity and charity. It implied the wish to share one’s bounty, and is epitomized by anonymous donations to charity. Philia, like storge, is close in meaning to friendship. It is based on liking and respect and involves the desire to do and share things with another person. Eros is closest in meaning to passionate, romantic, love. Sigmund Freud used the concept eros to describe a basic life instinct, which he thought motivated most human behavior. Freud believed, literally, that eros “makes the world go round .” Our own concept of romantic love does not imply any basic life instinct. Still, romantic love can be an important determinant of behavior-in societies that believe in the concept.
古希腊传统中的四种爱的类型
爱的传统可以追溯到经典的古希腊时期。那时有四种爱的概念与现在爱的概念有关:Storge意思是依恋和没有性倾向的感情,这种感情将朋友、父母和子女联系在一起。Agape与慷慨和慈善相似,它意指乐善好施,其典型的做法是向慈善机构匿名捐款。Philia与Storge相似,与友情意思密切相关。它是基于爱好和尊重并与期望与他人共同分享事物。Eros的意思与热烈的浪漫的爱相近。弗洛伊德将eros描述成为是生命的本能,他认为这本能驱动人类的大部分行为,它使这个世界转动。我们现在对浪漫的爱的理解并不是暗指什么生命的本能,但是浪漫的爱仍是社会行为的一个重要的决定因素。
Styles of love
Other psychologists speak of contemporary styles of love. For expmpler, Clyde and Susan Hendrick (1986) of Texas Tech University developed a love-attitude scale that suggests the existence of six styles of love among college students. Following is a list of the styles, with items that identigy the style and are similar to the actual items on the love-attitude scale. As you will see ,current conceptions of love still owe a debt to the ancient Greesk:
1.Eros, or romantic love, “my lover fits my ideal,” “My lover and I were attracted to one another immediately.”
2.Ludus, or game-playing love. “I keep my lover up in the air about my commitment,” “I get over lover affairs pretty easily”
3.Storge, or friendship-love. “The best love grows out of an enduring friendship.”
4.Pragma; pragmatic or logical love. “I consider a lover’s potential in life before commiting myself,” “I consider whether my lover will be a good parent.”
5.mania, or possessive, excited love. “I get so excited about my love that I cannot sleep,” “when my lover ignores me I get sick all over.”
6.Agape, or selfless love. “I would do anything I can to help my lover,” “My lover’s needs and wishs are more important than my own.”
爱的风格
其他一些心理学家谈及了当代的爱的风格或类型。例如1986德克萨斯技术工学院做的一项关于爱情态度调查表明大学生当中存在6种风格的爱。
1.Eros即浪漫的爱。“我的爱人是我的梦中情人”“我和我的爱人一见钟情”
2.Ludus即游戏式的爱。“我让对方摸不准我有多投入”“我能很容易地从失恋中恢复”
3.Storge即友谊式的爱。“最好的爱成长于持久的友谊中”
4.Pragma即实用式的爱。“我在投入一段感情之前,我会先考虑他的生活的潜力”“我会考虑我的爱人是否能成为好的父母”
5.mania即占有式的激情式的爱。“我对我的爱情兴奋的不能入睡”“当我的爱人不理我时,我会一病不起”
6.Agape即无私的爱。“为了帮助我的爱人我愿意做任何事情”“爱人的需求和愿望比我自己的还重要”

想一想,你和他或她之间是哪一种爱呢?


From University of Alberta:

Smarter ways to measure intelligence than IQ, says University of Alberta researcher

Measuring a child's IQ is an obsolete way to determine intelligence, and in fact, labels youngsters unfairly, according to a University of Alberta professor.
根据Alberta大学的一位教授的说法,通过测量儿童的智商(IQ)来确定其智力的方法是陈旧的,同时事实上,这种贴标签的方法也是不公平的。
Building on a theory he began researching almost 20 years ago, Dr. J.P. Das has developed ' rules and tools of intelligence' which point to factors other than IQ (Intelligence Quotient) in measuring how 'smart' a child is.
基于其从20年前就开始研究的一个理论,Das博士编制了同其他智商测试不同的关于如何测量一个孩子有多聪明的标准与工具。
''A child growing up in the slums or in a household with no literacy or books could be very street-smart, yet not have the school learning required for the traditional measurement of IQ,'' says Das, Professor Emeritus in educational psychology at the University of Alberta.
来自Alberta大学的退休教育心理学教授Das说,一个成长在贫民窟或者普通家庭,没有接受教育的儿童可以很聪明,但传统的智商测试必须要求曾经在学校学习过。
Das presented his Rules and Tools of Intelligence: How IQ became obsolete in a keynote address at the 28th International Congress of Psychology held in Beijing, China in August, and the system is now being used all over the world, and is being translated into several languages. Using a grant from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, Das is currently working with children in an Alberta aboriginal community to explore learning problems.
Das博士介绍了他关于智力的标准与测量工具:在八月份北京召开的第28届国际心理学大会上发表了智商是怎样变的陈旧为主题的演讲,同时这套方法已经在全世界使用,即将被翻译成各国的语言。经加拿大社会科学和人文研究委员会的批准,Das博士现在在Alberta的一个土著居民区展开关于如何学习的问题的研究。
Das identifies four 'rules of intelligence' that go into information processing. The rules include a belief that intelligence is not fixed, but is influenced by such factors as learning and cultural demands, cognitive abilities, even school attendance, as well as individual ability to process information such as language and face recognition.
Das博士确定了四种可以研究信息处理的智力标准。其中包括智力不是固定不变的,受诸如学习与文化需求、认知能力等因素的影响,甚至于到校的次数与个人在处理诸如言语和表象等的信息处理过程。
The rules guide the research on PASS theory, developed by Das and two colleagues in 1994. PASS (an acronym for Planning, Attention, Simultaneous and Successive processing) has shown that intelligence should not be measured alone by school learning and IQ testing, but by information processing that occurs during this learning. ''What goes into intellectual abilities and how a person solves a problem is more important than a score itself,'' said Das.
标准知道在PASS理论上的研究,该理论是Das博士与其两位同事在1994年提出来的。PASS理论(是计划、注意、同时性、成功处理的英文简称)认为智力的测量不应是仅仅对学校学习与智商的测量,而应该是当学习是对信息处理的测量。Das博士说,什么影响智力能力和一个人如何解决问题是比一个分数本身更重要的。
A system for cognitive assessment based on PASS has been available since 1997, following standardized testing on 3,000 children and teens, and has been adopted by school districts in the United States, including Los Angeles.
从1997年开始,一套基于PASS理论的认知评估系统已经开始使用,是通过对3000名儿童的标准化测试得到的,并已经在美国的学区包括洛杉矶使用。
IQ testing can stigmatize a child permanently, causing more harm than good, Das said. ''When a child is labelled as gifted, you are happy. But when he is labelled as borderline intelligent, as a parent you think, 'What did I do? I must have committed a sin.'''
智商测试给一个孩子永远地打上一个烙印,导致的坏处多于好处。Das博士说,当一个孩子被贴以天才的标签,他会很高兴,但他被贴以智力的边线时候,作为他的父母亲,你会想:我做了什么?我犯罪了。
Using the PASS rules of intelligence, teachers in the classroom can individualize their program planning for students, Das says. ''Rather than categorizing and labelling, a teacher can explore the different thought process of each child as unique.''
使用PASS的智力标准,教师可以使起针对学生的计划更有个性。Das博士说,教师可以探索每个学生唯一不同的思考过程而不是将他们进行分类和贴标签。


前几天翻译的一个东西,翻的不好请大家帮我改正!


How science could help politicians

科学研究表明:脸部特征决定第一印象 
It is the holy grail of politicians everywhere - how to win and keep the trust of voters. 

Now researchers at the University of St Andrew's in Scotland say they may have the answer. 

They believe politicians could learn a lot from recent advances in science. 

A growing number of studies have shown that people do judge a book by its cover. 

Researchers say most of us make instant judgements about a person on the basis of how they look. 

They say facial features can determine whether we like or trust someone. It may even influence how we vote. 

"Over the years, we have found that facial features affect the way many of us perceive others," says Elisabeth Cornwell, a psychology researcher at the university's Perception Laboratory. 

Studies suggest that people are less likely to trust those with particularly masculine features, such as a square jaw, small eyes or big nose. 

"They are perceived as dominant and less trustworthy," says Ms Cornwell. 

"It doesn't mean that men who look more masculine are less trustworthy - it's just our first impressions." 

Those with less masculine features - larger eyes, a smaller nose and thinner lips - are deemed to be more trustworthy. 

"We are very good at processing these features quickly," says Ms Cornwell. 

The researchers are putting their science to the test at the Royal Society's annual summer exhibition in London. 

They have subtly manipulated the faces of Prime Minister Tony Blair, Conservative leader Michael Howard and Liberal Democrat leader Charles Kennedy accentuating their dominant and trustworthy features respectively. 

"We have used a computer programme to change the shape of their face and features. 

"We hope it will help people to understand our work." 

So should we expect to see Tony Blair, Michael Howard and Charles Kennedy at the exhibition getting tips? 

"I don't think it's something they will want to try," says Ms Cornwell. 

"It's not really possible with television. We all know what they look like. I think they would be naive to try it." 

(Agencies)

如何才能赢得并保持选民对自己的信任——世界各地***家们梦寐以求却永远无法解决的问题。 
现在苏格兰圣安德鲁大学的研究者们声称他们可能掌握了其中的秘诀。

他们相信***家们可以从最近的科学研究成果中学到很多东西。

越来越多的研究表明人们根据封面来判断一本书的好坏。

研究者们说大部分人对一个人第一眼的评价主要取决于他的相貌。

他们说面部特征可以决定人们是否喜欢或信任一个人,这甚至可以影响人们的投票。

苏格兰圣安德鲁大学感觉实验室的心理学研究员伊丽莎白·康威尔说:“这些年,我们发现很多人对他人的认识方式都会受到此人面部特征的影响。”

研究表明人们不太容易相信有突出男性特征的人,比如方下巴,小眼睛,大鼻子。

康威尔小姐说:“人们认为有这种特征的人有权有势,不太值得信任。”

“这并不意味着看起来阳刚的男士不可信赖——这只是人们的第一印象。”

人们认为更值得信赖的是那些男性特征不太突出的人——大眼睛,小鼻子,薄嘴唇。

康威尔小姐说:“人们可以很熟练的迅速处理这些特征。”

研究者们在伦敦英国皇家学会年度夏季展览会上展示了他们的成果,并接受检验。

他们巧妙的利用知名人物的脸来进行试验,包括首相托尼·布莱尔,保守党领袖迈克尔·霍华德和自由民主党领袖查尔斯·肯尼迪,分别着重指出了他们三人脸部特征中表示有权势或可信赖的特征。

“我们使用电脑程序改变他们的脸型和五官特征。”

“我们希望这有助于人们理解我们的成果。”

那么,我们是否可以期待在展览会上看到改头换面后的托尼·布莱尔,迈克尔·霍华德和查尔斯·肯尼迪赢得选民的青睐呢?

康威尔小姐说:“我想他们不会用这三个人的脸做实验。”

“在电视上不会成功的。我们都知道他们三个人长什么样子,我认为他们做这种试验实在是太幼稚了。”

holy grail: (传说耶稣死前在最后的晚餐用过,后又承接过他的血的)圣杯(系亚瑟王的骑士追求之物),在这里用了它的引申义,意思是梦寐以求但永远实现不了的目标。 
facial features: 面部特征
accentuating: 着重

(中国日报网站译)


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另外,给大家一个链接,喜欢翻译的朋友可以去寻找有关的文章.


四十二天学会英语的模范短文
(作者:陈海泓) 

第一天:THE NEWSPAPER 报 纸
Nowadays the newspaper possesses considerable value Everybody should read it. It supplies us with a variety of news every day. It tells us the political situation of the world. If we form the habit of reading the newspaper, we shall (will) get enough knowledge to cope with our circumstances.
现今报纸拥有极大的价值,人人都应该看它。它每天提供我们各种类类的消息。它告诉我们世界***局势。如果我们养成看报的习惯,我们就能得到足够的知识来因应我们的环境。
学生虽然每天须做功课,但他们至少应该匀出一两个小时来看报。哪些,他们不但能增加知识而且也能赶上时代。总而言之,看报对学生很有益处。
------------
第二天:MY DAILY LIFE 我的日常生活
Though my daily life is extremely monotonous, I try hard to adapt myself to it. Why? Because I intend to be a good student. I wish to render service to my country. I get up at six o’clock every day. After I wash my face and brush my teeth, I begin to review my lessons. I go to school at seven o’clock. After school is over, I return home. We usually have supper at seven o’clock. Then I begin to do my homework. I want to finish it before I go to bed.
虽然我的日常生活十分单调,但我却竭力设法去适应它。为什么?因为我打算做一个好学生,希望将来为国家服务。我每天六点起床、洗脸刷牙后,就开始复习功课,七点钟我就去上学。 放学后,我就回家了。我们通常在七点钟吃晚餐,之后我就开始做家庭作业,希望在睡觉前把它做完。
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第三天:A MODEL STUDENT 模范学生
Do you mind being called a bad student? Of course not. So far as I know, everybody intends to be (become) a model student.
However, to be a model student is by no means an easy thing. First, he must do his best to obtain knowledge. A man without fficient knowledge will not succeed. Secondly, he must remember to improve his health. Only a strong man can do great tasks. Thirdly, he hould receive moral education. If his conduct is not good, no one will consider making friends with him.
你价意被称为坏学生吗?当然不。就我所知,每个人都打算做模范学生。
然而,做模范学生却不容易。第一,他必须尽力获得知识(求知)。一个没有足够知识的人是不会成功的。第二,他必须记住促进健康。只有强壮的人才能做大事。第三,他应该接受道德教育。如果他品行不好,没有人会考虑和他交朋友的。
------------
第四天:HOW TO GET HAPPINESS 如何获得快乐
There is no doubt that happiness is the most precious thing in the world. Without it, life will be empty and meaningless. If you wish to know how to get happiness, you must pay attention to the following two points. First, health is the secret of happiness (the key to happiness). Only a strong man can enjoy the pleasure of life. Secondly, happiness consists in contentment. A man who is dissatisfied with his present condition is always in distress.
无疑的快乐是世界上最宝贵的东西。没有它,人生将是空虚的而且毫无意义的。如果你希望知道如何获得快乐,你须注意下面两点。健康是快乐的要诀。唯有身体强壮的人才能享受人生的乐趣。快乐在于知足。一个不满于现状的人终是处在痛苦之中。