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郑永年:制度“隔离”与中国社会乱象

最近四川成都七中实验学校食品安全事件成为中国的特大社会新闻,在社会各阶层产生了巨大的反响。

Recently, the food safety incident of no. 7 middle school in chengdu, sichuan province has become a huge social news in China, which has generated huge repercussions in all social strata.

但这实在是说不上新闻,只是这样的事情再次发生。

But it's not news, it's just happening again.

这些年来不知道已经发生过多少次类似的事件,食品、药物、幼儿园、医院等等很多领域,随时都会发生类似的安全问题。

I don't know how many similar incidents have happened over the years. In many fields, such as food, medicine, kindergartens, hospitals and so on, similar safety problems may occur at any time.

每发生一次,社会就躁动一次,但平息下来之后,人们只能眼睁睁地等待着下一次发生,所不确定的只是不知道下一次会发生在哪里、发生在谁身上。

Each time it happens, society is agitated, but after it subsides, people can only helplessly wait for the next time to happen, not sure just where and to whom the next time will happen.

一旦这样的事件发生了,人们首先想到的是政府的监管问题,认为这是政府监管不严所造成的。

Once such incidents happen, the first thing that comes to people's mind is the government's supervision problem, which is believed to be caused by the government's lax supervision.

的确,监管问题也是这些年政府所强调的。

Indeed, regulatory issues have been highlighted by the government over the years.

实际上,各级政府都不希望看到这样的事情发生,因为每次发生,有关政府部门就会面临来自社会和上级政府的双重压力。

In fact, all levels of government do not want to see such a thing happen, because every time it happens, the relevant government departments will face the double pressure from the society and the superior government.

这样的问题如果处理不好,甚至会对政府的治理合法性产生非常负面的影响。

Such problems, if not handled properly, will even have a very negative impact on the legitimacy of the government's governance.

因此,每当这样的事件发生,有关部门都会信誓旦旦地保证做好监管问题,找出该承担责任的人,很多人也受到了相应的惩罚,有被送进监狱的,甚至也有被执行死刑的(尤其是药监领域)。

As a result, whenever such incidents occur, the authorities will make a solemn commitment to do a good job in supervision and identify those responsible, and many of them will be punished accordingly, some will be sent to prison, and some will even be executed (especially in the field of drug supervision).

不过,从这些年的经验来看,不管怎样的监管,都显得苍白无力。

But experience over the years has shown that regulation, no matter what, pales in comparison.

监管是出了事情之后的监管,等出了事情再去监管,就比较晚了。

Regulation is regulation after something goes wrong. It is later to regulate after something goes wrong.

通俗地说,监管类似于救火,着火了就自然要去救。

In layman's terms, regulation is like putting out a fire.

但一旦起火了,损失就已经造成了。

But once the fire started, the damage was done.

因此,就需要寻找更深层次的原因,探究为什么监管无效,是否可以在源头上控制甚至防止这样的事情发生。

Therefore, it is necessary to look for deeper reasons to explore why regulations are ineffective and whether such things can be controlled or even prevented at the source.

因为谁也不想看到这样的事情发生,如果能够找到源头加以防止,无疑是符合各方利益的。

Because no one wants to see such a thing happen, if we can find the source to prevent, is undoubtedly in the interests of all parties.

是什么原因导致现有的监管无效呢?

What makes existing regulations ineffective?

监管在任何一个国家都是难题,没有一个国家可以宣称有完美的监管制度。

Regulation is a problem in any country, and no country can claim to have a perfect regulatory regime.

但中国监管问题的起源具有特殊性,那就是存在着一种可以称之为“制度隔离”的现象,即监管者和普通人民并不在同一个制度体系里面,或者他们表面同处一个制度体系,但被一种制度所隔离。

However, the origin of China's regulatory problems is special, that is, there is a phenomenon that can be called "institutional isolation", that is, regulators and ordinary people are not in the same institutional system, or they are seemingly in the same institutional system, but separated by one system.

笔者从前称这种现象为“城堡”现象,即中国仍然有太多的特权系统,这些特权系统把监管者和老百姓隔离开来。

I used to call this the "fortress" phenomenon, the idea that China still has too many systems of privilege that insulate regulators from ordinary people.

长期以来,医疗、教育、住房、食品等领域都存在着特权系统,以至于人们说,除了空气是官员和人民共享的之外,其他的都是官员独享的。

There has long been a system of privilege in the fields of health care, education, housing, food, etc., so much so that it is said that except for the air Shared by the officials and the people, all the others are exclusive to the officials.

除官员以外,有钱人因为有钱,也可以仿效政府制造出自己的特供系统。

In addition to officials, the rich, because they have money, can also copy the government to create their own special supply system.

很显然,无论是国有企业还是大型民企,都有自己不同形式的“特供”系统。

Obviously, both state-owned enterprises and large private enterprises have their own special supply systems in different forms.

这样,留下的或者被特供系统所“抛弃”的便只是普通民众。

In this way, ordinary people are left behind or "abandoned" by the system.

在医疗方面,中国盛行的实际上一直是传统类型的“太医制度”。

In terms of medical treatment, what has been prevailing in China is actually the traditional type of "taiyi system".

各级领导和官员几乎都有大大小小的属于自己的“太医”。

Leaders and officials at all levels almost all have their own "taiyi", big or small.

政府系统高级官员消耗着太多的医疗资源,退休官员享受着过度医疗和过度照料,形成穷人帮助特权者的医疗体制。

Senior officials in the government system consume too much medical resources, and retired officials enjoy excessive medical care and overcare, forming a medical system that helps the poor and privileged.

在“太医制度”下,任何有利于民众的医疗改革就变得不可能,原因很简单,各级官员的健康乃至生命都和“太医”有关,这些“太医”对决策者和权力实施者具有太大的影响,任何理性的医疗改革方案都顶不上“太医们”对掌权者的耳语。

Under the system of "cure too much", any beneficial to people's health care reform is impossible, for the simple reason that officials at all levels of health and life are related to "cure too much", the "cure too much" impact on the decision makers and implementers have too much power, any rational health reforms on the top is not "cure too much to the ruler's whisper."

在教育方面,从幼儿园到大学,各级官员都有自己的渠道和方法,能够妥善安排和解决子女的就业问题。

In terms of education, officials at all levels, from kindergartens to universities, have their own channels and methods to properly arrange and solve the employment problems of their children.

即使用权力解决不了的事情,也可以用钱来解决,在很多场合都是企业家和商人主动来帮助解决,这尤其表现在出国留学方面。

Even if you can't solve the problem with power, you can also solve it with money. On many occasions, entrepreneurs and businessmen take the initiative to help solve the problem, especially when it comes to studying abroad.

中国官员的工资之低是路人皆知的,但看看哪位官员的小孩不是上的最好最贵的学校?

Chinese officials are notoriously underpaid, but which official's child doesn't go to the best and most expensive school?

这里面的腐败是不言而喻的。

The corruption here is self-evident.

政府和人民互相不信任局面

A situation of mutual distrust between the government and the people

房地产一直困扰着中国社会,无论是政府还是普通民众。

Real estate has long troubled Chinese society, both the government and ordinary people.

房地产是政府的问题,也是社会的问题,但绝对不是政府官员的问题。

Real estate is a problem for the government and society, but it is definitely not a problem for government officials.

因为社会对房地产(天价住房)不满,房地产就成为政府的问题。

Because society is discontented to estate (day price housing), estate becomes the problem of the government.

官员的房地产仍然处于“计划经济”体制之下,即各级政府官员根据级别仍然能够享受官员住房。

The real estate of officials is still under the "planned economy" system, that is, government officials at all levels can still enjoy official housing according to their rank.

这些年尽管有变化,但充其量也只是“半商品化”,也就是说官员可以取得非市场价格的住房。

Although there have been changes over the years, they are, at best, "semi-commoditised", meaning that officials can obtain housing at non-market prices.

所有这些都表明了,尽管政府官员也和老百姓一样享受着市场经济所带来的利益,但他们无需承担市场经济所带来的任何风险。

All this shows that although government officials enjoy the benefits of the market economy as much as ordinary people, they need not bear any risks brought by the market economy.

或者说,他们并不是市场经济的“利益相关者”,而是“利益不相关者”。

In other words, they are not "stakeholders" of the market economy, but "stakeholders".

既然是“利益不相关”,如何希望他们做好对市场的监管呢?

How do you expect them to regulate the market well when they are not?

设想一下,如果所有官员和普通老百姓一样,都要在市场上购买食品、药物、住房、教育等,他们的监管动力机制肯定和现在的不一样。

Imagine if all officials, like ordinary people, had to buy food, medicine, housing, education, etc., on the market.

如果自己也和普通百姓一样有可能成为市场的受害者,他们就具有了强大的动力去监管市场。

If they are as likely to fall victim to the market as the general public, they have a strong incentive to regulate the market.

在明了这个问题之后,也比较容易回答如何避免现行监管无效、如何改进监管制度的问题了,那就是废除特权、拆除隔离官员和老百姓的“城墙”。

Knowing this question, it is also easier to answer the question of how to avoid ineffective regulation and how to improve the regulatory system, namely, to abolish privileges and dismantle the "wall" separating officials and ordinary people.

这样做,无论对改善市场经济环境还是对执政党长期执政,都具有重要性。

This is of great importance both to the improvement of the market economic environment and to the long-term governance of the ruling party.

对市场经济而言,社会的一部分进入市场了,而另一部分却没有进入市场,这不能说是一个完全市场经济。

To market economy, one part of society enters the market, and other part does not enter the market, this cannot say a complete market economy.

进而,没有进入市场的这部分人有巨大的能量来操纵市场,这阻碍了市场的发育。

Furthermore, those who do not enter the market have enormous power to manipulate the market, which hinders the development of the market.

更为重要的是,如上所述,这部分人在从市场获取巨大的好处的同时不用承担市场的风险,这就遏制了市场的“趋善”而张扬了市场的“恶”,并且市场之“恶”是由普通民众来承担的,从而使得社会变得越来越不公平,越来越分化。

More importantly, as mentioned above, this part of the people at the same time of get huge benefits from market don't have to bear the risk of the market, it's a way to curb market "is good" and the "evil" of the market, and the market of "evil" was held by ordinary people, so as to make the society becomes more and more unfair, more and more divided.


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