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中国对美600亿美元商品加税生效 引发贸易战扩大担忧

华盛顿 —中国正式对美国600亿美元商品的关税上调至最高25%,以应对美国最近对中国商品增税。

Washington -- China has formally raised tariffs on $60 billion in U.S. goods to as much as 25 percent in response to a recent U.S. tax increase on Chinese goods.


The move added to fears that the trade war between the world's two largest economies will continue.


The United States and China are at loggerheads at the moment, with neither side showing any signs of compromising first.


The trump administration this month took steps to rein in China's technology industry, effectively banning huawei, the Chinese telecommunications company, from buying American technology and components.


China's ministry of commerce announced on Friday that it would publish a list of "unreliable entities" deemed to harm Chinese companies, with measures to be announced "in the near future".

智库战略与国际研究中心国际贸易问题专家莱茵施(William Reinsch)告诉美国之音:“北京的态度正在变得强硬,就像美国的态度一样。

William Reinsch, an expert on international trade at the center for strategic and international studies, told voa, "the attitude in Beijing is getting tougher, just like the attitude in the United States.


Both sides seem to be preparing for a long war, not an end."


Escalating economic and technological tensions between the world's two largest economies have shaken global financial markets and darkened the outlook for the world economy.


Chinese tariffs on $60 billion in U.S. goods went into effect Saturday Beijing time, raising tariffs on more than 5,000 U.S. products, including liquefied natural gas, petrochemicals and food, to as much as 25 percent from 10 percent.


Earlier this month, minister-level trade talks between the us and China in Washington yielded little, leading the trump administration to raise tariffs on $200bn of Chinese imports from 10 per cent to 25 per cent.


In addition to the tariffs, Mr. Trump ratcheted up the pressure on China, saying Washington had begun the process of imposing tariffs on all remaining Chinese imports.


The new duties could come into force as early as the end of June.


China's economy under pressure


The us and China blame each other for the failure of the talks.


The us accused China of reneging on previous commitments, but China said it must show "good faith" if talks were to resume.


The two sides are also at odds over how tariffs affect the Chinese economy.


Mr Trump said on Thursday that the tariffs had a "devastating effect" on China, prompting manufacturers in the country to shift supply chains.


A day later, Beijing responded that it was a "lie" by the United States.


However, the us tariffs come amid signs of a slowdown in China's economic growth.


China's economy grew 6.4 per cent in the first quarter, its slowest pace in nearly 30 years, partly because of the growing impact of the trade war, but that was still better than many analysts had expected.


While the economy has been under pressure and China has so far avoided large fiscal and monetary stimulus measures, the intensifying trade war with the us means Beijing may be forced to shift to more aggressive easing, putting the brakes on deleveraging to reduce debt and risky loans over the past few years.

国际信用评级机构惠誉(Fitch)本月早些时候的一份报告显示,如果特朗普对余下所有中国进口产品加征关税,将带来相当于中国国内生产总值(GDP) 0.5%左右的冲击。

A report by Fitch, the international credit rating agency, earlier this month suggested that if Mr Trump imposed tariffs on all remaining Chinese imports, the impact would be about 0.5 per cent of China's gross domestic product.


Fitch said that without a more aggressive domestic policy response from Beijing, this would force China to slash its growth forecasts.


The international monetary fund's latest world economic outlook, published in April, predicts China's growth will slow to 6.1% in 2020 from 6.3% in 2019.


Gloomy outlook


In recent days, China's leadership has hinted at using rare earths as leverage in a trade war with the United States.


In 2017, 80 percent of U.S. rare earths imports came from China.


But experts say Beijing may be reluctant to escalate the trade war.

智库彼得森国际经济研究所资深研究员柯克加德(Jacob Kirkegaard)对美国之音说:“它可能更多的是一种警告,而非实际的报复性措施。

Jacob Kirkegaard, a senior fellow at the peterson institute for international economics, told voa, "it may be more of a warning than an actual retaliatory measure.


"The Chinese counter-attack is now on a par with what the us is actually doing."


Trump is expected to hold talks with Chinese President xi jinping at the end of June on the sidelines of the group of 20 summit in Osaka, Japan.


However, expectations for a breakthrough on both sides are low.


Dai xianglong, a former governor of the people's bank of China, said on Friday that he did not expect any major progress to be made in next month's meeting between the heads of state of the United States and China.


Speaking at a seminar on china-us economic and trade relations in Beijing, dai xianglong said that in china-us trade negotiations, China adheres to the principle of "equal consultation and win-win cooperation", but the us practices bullying and adheres to the principle of "America first", so it is difficult for China and the us to agree on this issue.

不过,在卡特政府时期负责财政部国际贸易的副助理部长赫夫鲍尔(Gary Hufbauer)表示,峰会为两国休战提供了机会。

However, Gary Hufbauer, deputy assistant secretary of the Treasury for international trade in the carter administration, said the summit provided an opportunity for a truce.


"At the g20, I expect a truce, in other words, no further escalation, but I don't expect a real breakthrough," hufbauer told voa.

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