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中国对美600亿美元商品加税生效 引发贸易战扩大担忧

华盛顿 —中国正式对美国600亿美元商品的关税上调至最高25%,以应对美国最近对中国商品增税。

Washington -- China has formally raised tariffs on $60 billion in U.S. goods to as much as 25 percent in response to a recent U.S. tax increase on Chinese goods.

此举加剧了外界的担忧,即全球最大两个经济体之间的贸易战还将持续。

The move added to fears that the trade war between the world's two largest economies will continue.

美中两国目前争锋相对,任何一方都没有先妥协的迹象。

The United States and China are at loggerheads at the moment, with neither side showing any signs of compromising first.

特朗普政府本月采取了抑制中国科技行业的措施,实际上禁止中国电信公司华为采购美国的技术和部件。

The trump administration this month took steps to rein in China's technology industry, effectively banning huawei, the Chinese telecommunications company, from buying American technology and components.

中国商务部周五则宣布,将公布一份被认为损害中国企业利益的“不可靠实体清单”,具体措施将于“近期公布”。

China's ministry of commerce announced on Friday that it would publish a list of "unreliable entities" deemed to harm Chinese companies, with measures to be announced "in the near future".

智库战略与国际研究中心国际贸易问题专家莱茵施(William Reinsch)告诉美国之音:“北京的态度正在变得强硬,就像美国的态度一样。

William Reinsch, an expert on international trade at the center for strategic and international studies, told voa, "the attitude in Beijing is getting tougher, just like the attitude in the United States.

双方似乎都在准备一场长期战,而不是很快结束。”

Both sides seem to be preparing for a long war, not an end."

世界最大两个经济体之间的经济和技术紧张关系升级,震动了全球金融市场,令世界经济前景黯淡。

Escalating economic and technological tensions between the world's two largest economies have shaken global financial markets and darkened the outlook for the world economy.

中国对600亿美元美国商品加征的关税于北京时间周六(6月1日)生效,清单囊括了超过5000种美国商品,包括液化天然气、石油化工产品和食品的关税都从此前的10%上调至最高25%。

Chinese tariffs on $60 billion in U.S. goods went into effect Saturday Beijing time, raising tariffs on more than 5,000 U.S. products, including liquefied natural gas, petrochemicals and food, to as much as 25 percent from 10 percent.

本月初,美国和中国在华盛顿举行了部长级贸易谈判,但收效甚微,致使特朗普政府将对2000亿美元中国输美商品关税从10%提高到25%。

Earlier this month, minister-level trade talks between the us and China in Washington yielded little, leading the trump administration to raise tariffs on $200bn of Chinese imports from 10 per cent to 25 per cent.

除了开征的关税,特朗普还对中国施加更大压力,称华盛顿已经启动对余下全部中国输美商品加征关税的程序。

In addition to the tariffs, Mr. Trump ratcheted up the pressure on China, saying Washington had begun the process of imposing tariffs on all remaining Chinese imports.

新关税最早可能于6月底实施。

The new duties could come into force as early as the end of June.

中国经济承压

China's economy under pressure

美中双方互相指责对方应该为谈判失败负责。

The us and China blame each other for the failure of the talks.

美国指责中国违背先前的承诺,但中国表示,如果要恢复谈判,美国必须表现出“诚意”。

The us accused China of reneging on previous commitments, but China said it must show "good faith" if talks were to resume.

双方在关税如何影响中国经济方面也存在分歧。

The two sides are also at odds over how tariffs affect the Chinese economy.

特朗普周四表示,关税对中国产生了“破坏性影响”,促使在华制造商转移供应链。

Mr Trump said on Thursday that the tariffs had a "devastating effect" on China, prompting manufacturers in the country to shift supply chains.

一天后,北京回应称,这是美国的“谎言”。

A day later, Beijing responded that it was a "lie" by the United States.

然而,在美国对中国加征关税之际,中国经济增长出现了放缓的迹象。

However, the us tariffs come amid signs of a slowdown in China's economic growth.

中国经济今年第一季度增长6.4%,为近30年来的最低增速,部分原因是贸易战的影响日益加大,但这仍好于许多分析师的预期。

China's economy grew 6.4 per cent in the first quarter, its slowest pace in nearly 30 years, partly because of the growing impact of the trade war, but that was still better than many analysts had expected.

尽管经济承压,中国迄今为止一直避免使用大规模财政和货币刺激措施,但美中贸易战加剧意味着,中国政府可能被迫转向更为激进的宽松政策,为过去几年减少债务和高风险贷款的去杠杆行动踩下刹车。

While the economy has been under pressure and China has so far avoided large fiscal and monetary stimulus measures, the intensifying trade war with the us means Beijing may be forced to shift to more aggressive easing, putting the brakes on deleveraging to reduce debt and risky loans over the past few years.

国际信用评级机构惠誉(Fitch)本月早些时候的一份报告显示,如果特朗普对余下所有中国进口产品加征关税,将带来相当于中国国内生产总值(GDP) 0.5%左右的冲击。

A report by Fitch, the international credit rating agency, earlier this month suggested that if Mr Trump imposed tariffs on all remaining Chinese imports, the impact would be about 0.5 per cent of China's gross domestic product.

惠誉表示,如果北京方面不拿出更积极的国内政策回应,这将迫使中国大幅下调增长预期。

Fitch said that without a more aggressive domestic policy response from Beijing, this would force China to slash its growth forecasts.

国际货币基金组织(IMF)4月最新一期《世界经济展望》预测,中国经济增速2019年为6.3%,到2020年将降至6.1%。

The international monetary fund's latest world economic outlook, published in April, predicts China's growth will slow to 6.1% in 2020 from 6.3% in 2019.

前景低迷

Gloomy outlook

近日,中国领导层暗示将以稀土作为美中贸易战的筹码。

In recent days, China's leadership has hinted at using rare earths as leverage in a trade war with the United States.

2017年,美国进口的稀土有80%来自中国。

In 2017, 80 percent of U.S. rare earths imports came from China.

但专家指出,北京方面可能不愿意主动升级贸易战。

But experts say Beijing may be reluctant to escalate the trade war.

智库彼得森国际经济研究所资深研究员柯克加德(Jacob Kirkegaard)对美国之音说:“它可能更多的是一种警告,而非实际的报复性措施。

Jacob Kirkegaard, a senior fellow at the peterson institute for international economics, told voa, "it may be more of a warning than an actual retaliatory measure.

中国目前的反击措施与美国实际的措施相当。”

"The Chinese counter-attack is now on a par with what the us is actually doing."

预计特朗普将于6月底在日本大阪举行的二十国集团(G20)峰会期间与中国国家主席习近平举行会谈。

Trump is expected to hold talks with Chinese President xi jinping at the end of June on the sidelines of the group of 20 summit in Osaka, Japan.

然而,外界对两方取得突破的期望很低。

However, expectations for a breakthrough on both sides are low.

中国央行前行长戴相龙周五表示,预计中美元首下月的会晤很难取得重大进展。

Dai xianglong, a former governor of the people's bank of China, said on Friday that he did not expect any major progress to be made in next month's meeting between the heads of state of the United States and China.

戴相龙在北京的一个中美经贸关系研讨会上说,在中美贸易谈判中,中国坚持“平等协商、合作共赢”的原则,但美国实行的是霸凌主义,坚持“美国第一”的原则,因此,中美双方在这个认识问题上很难统一。

Speaking at a seminar on china-us economic and trade relations in Beijing, dai xianglong said that in china-us trade negotiations, China adheres to the principle of "equal consultation and win-win cooperation", but the us practices bullying and adheres to the principle of "America first", so it is difficult for China and the us to agree on this issue.

不过,在卡特政府时期负责财政部国际贸易的副助理部长赫夫鲍尔(Gary Hufbauer)表示,峰会为两国休战提供了机会。

However, Gary Hufbauer, deputy assistant secretary of the Treasury for international trade in the carter administration, said the summit provided an opportunity for a truce.

“在二十国集团峰会上,我期待休战,换句话说,不会进一步升级,但我不期待真正的突破,”赫夫鲍尔告诉美国之音。

"At the g20, I expect a truce, in other words, no further escalation, but I don't expect a real breakthrough," hufbauer told voa.


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